Water Purification

Dave

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More than three-fourths of your body is composed of fluids. Fluids are continually lost due to heat, cold, stress, and exertion. The fluid your body loses must be replaced every day for you to live, especially in hot areas where you need a gallon a day while losing so much through sweating. Even in cold or freezing areas, you need a minimum of 2 quarts/liters of water a day to maintain efficiency. Cooking typically requires water as well so the ability to ensure CLEAN WATER is at the top of any survival task list. Remember – it takes time to prepare raw water for drinking or cooking. Plan early so it’s ready for use before you get thirsty.

Water may be obtained from various outdoor sources including the following:

Surface Water is considered the best source of water. Water can be procured from lakes, rivers, streams, and ponds. Moving water or large bodies of water are generally considered less contaminated due to the aeration which significantly decreases growth of bacteria, algae, and fungus. Adequate disinfectant is required.

When considering salt water, however, the water must be desalinated and disinfected before it is used. This requires the use of a Reverse Osmosis Water Purification Unit (ROWPU). Salt water cannot be easily purified for individual use.

Ground Water is water procured from wells and springs. Ground water is generally less susceptible to chemical and biological pollution than other sources and is considered a great source during an emergency. The quantity and quality
may be hard to determine without proper equipment. Adequate disinfectant is required. Ground water may or may not be used for individual use, depending on its accessibility.

Local Community municipal water system is a potential water source. Even though there may be a water treatment system in place, it must be considered a raw water source until it is confirmed potable.
The potential for accidental or intentional contamination of the water system by natural disaster, vandals or even terrorism should be considered.

Consider the pH scale when selecting a water source, and when testing potability.

The pH scale measures how acidic an object is. Objects that are not very acidic are called basic. The scale has values ranging from zero (the most acidic) to 14 (the most basic).
As you can see from the pH scale below, pure water (aka sweet water) has a pH value of 7.
Some remote desert locations have "bad water" that can kill you so be aware - if animals don't frequent a body of water, it's nasty!

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Water Purification Basics:
Purify all water before drinking, either (1) by boiling; or (2) by using water purification tablets or (3) by using household bleach, HTH, or iodine.

Rainwater collected directly in clean containers or on plants is generally safe to drink without purifying.
Salt water cannot be purified for individual use.
Don’t drink urine or sea water -- the salt content is too high. Old bluish sea ice can be used, but new, gray ice may be salty.
Glacier ice is safe to melt and drink.

NOTE: For best results, first FILTER the water and then DISINFECT the water to remove bacteria, parasite, and virus threats, see below.
*Chemicals like hydrocarbons, insecticides, cyanuric acid in swimming pool water, and/or metals are not removed simply by boiling and disinfecting water. These require extra steps to remove.

For civilian water purification tablets, use chlorine dioxide type like Katadyn MicroPur MP1. It destroys viruses and bacteria in 15 min., Giardia in 30 min. and Cryptosporidium in 4 hrs (a microorganism that is the most common cause of
upset stomach/diarrhea in untreated water in the US).
Unlike iodine, chlorine dioxide does not discolor water, nor does it give water an unpleasant taste. It also doesn’t leave behind any by-products in treated water, unlike other purification agents like bleach or iodine.
These have a 5-year shelf life from date of mfg.

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Potable Aqua brand or military type iodine tablets contain tetra glycine hydro periodide, which releases titratable iodine.
The procedures for disinfecting small quantities of water with these tablets are as follows:
  1. Fill the water bottle with the cleanest, clearest water available.
  2. Add two iodine tablets to each quart/liter of water.
  3. Tincture of iodine, 2 percent, may be used in place of the tablets. Five drops of the liquid are equivalent toone iodine tablet.
  4. Put the cap on the container. Shake to dissolve the tablets.
  5. Wait 5 min, loosen the cap slightly and tip the container over to allow leakage around the cap threads.
  6. Tighten the cap and wait an additional 30 min before drinking.
  7. For personal hydration systems (Camelbak etc) use four iodine tablets for 70- or 72-oz water reservoirs an dsix for 100- or 102-oz reservoirs and allow 30 min of contact time before drinking the water.
Unopened bottles of tablets have an average shelf life of 4 years if stored between 60 and 86 degrees, opened bottles are good for one year.

*Caution: Iodine is not effective against Cryptosporidium.

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1. BOIL WATER if you are unsure of its cleanliness! Water boils at 212° F (100° C). 212° F as a boiling point is usually at sea-level. The boiling temperature will change with the altitude. The higher you are above sea-level, the lower the boiling point of water. Example: At 7,500 feet, water boils at about 198° F.

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If water is cloudy, let it settle and filter it through a clean cloth, shirt, towel, or coffee filter BEFORE boiling. Then:
  1. Bring water to a rolling boil for at least one minute. At altitudes above 5,000 feet (1,000 meters), boil water for at least three minutes.
  2. Let water cool naturally and store it in clean containers with covers.
  3. To improve the flat taste of boiled water, add one pinch of salt to each quart or liter of water, or pour the water from one clean container to another several times.
*Note: Boiling for one (1) minute is sufficient to kill 99.9% of pathogenic bacteria, viruses and protozoa (WHO, 2023).

*Note: Boiling for a full five (5) minutes kills all the rare bacteria and pathogens that are able to survive in boiling water temperatures (E.coli, Giardia) per the CDC.

*Note: Chemicals like hydrocarbons, insecticides, cyanuric acid in swimming pool water, and/or metals are not removed simply by boiling and disinfecting water. These require extra steps to remove.

2. DISINFECT water using Sodium Hypochlorite (common household bleach). Only use regular, unscented chlorine bleach products that are suitable for household disinfection and sanitization as indicated on the label.
The label may say that the active ingredient contains 6 or 8.25% of sodium hypochlorite. Do not use scented, color safe, or bleaches with added softeners or cleaners.

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If water is cloudy, let it settle and filter it through a clean cloth, paper towel, or coffee filter before disinfection. Then:
  1. Locate a clean dropper from your medicine cabinet or emergency supply kit.
  2. Locate a fresh liquid chlorine bleach or liquid chlorine bleach that was stored at room temperatures for less than one year.
  3. Use the table below as a guide to decide the amount of bleach you should add to the water, for example, 8 drops of 6% bleach, or 6 drops of 8.25% bleach, to each gallon of water. Double the amount of bleach if the water is cloudy, colored, or very cold.
  4. Stir and let stand for 30 minutes. The water should have a slight chlorine odor. If it doesn’t, repeat the dosage and let stand for another 15 minutes before use.
  5. If the chlorine taste is too strong, pour the water from one clean container to another and let it stand for a few hours before use.
*Note: 1 drop equals 0.05 mL.

*Note: Common liquid household bleach may contain six percent (6%) or 8.25% sodium hypochlorite. Pay attention to what you are using, see chart below:

Volume of Water--------Amount of 6% Bleach to Add*---Amount of 8.25% Bleach to Add*
  • 1 quart/liter--------2 drops/0.1 mL---------------------2 drops/0.1 mL
  • 1 gallon------------8 drops/0.4 mL---------------------6 drops/0.3 mL
  • 2 gallons-----------16 drops (1/4 tsp)------------------12 drops (1/8 teaspoon)
  • 4 gallons-----------1/3 teaspoon-----------------------1/4 teaspoon
  • 8 gallons-----------2/3 teaspoon-----------------------1/2 teaspoon
*NOTE: Acceptable range for Chlorine Concentration in potable water is between 0.2 and 4.0 parts per million (PPM).

3. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION using HTH aka Granular Calcium Hypochlorite. HTH is a common pool or hot tub disinfectant usually found in a dry solid or powder form.
*CAUTION: HTH is a very powerful oxidant! Follow the instructions on the label for safe handling and storage of this chemical. For your safety, do this in a well-ventilated area and wear eye protection.

The first step is to make a chlorine solution that you will use to disinfect your water:
  1. Add one heaping teaspoon (approximately ¼ ounce) of high-test granular calcium hypochlorite (HTH) to two (2) gallons of water and stir until the particles have dissolved.
  2. The mixture will produce a chlorine solution of approximately 500 milligrams per liter.
  3. To disinfect water, add one part of the chlorine solution to each 100 parts of water you are treating.
  4. This is about the same as adding 1 pint (16 ounces) of the chlorine solution to 12.5 gallons of water.
  5. If the chlorine taste is too strong, pour the water from one clean container to another and let it stand for a few hours before use.
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4. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION using common household iodine (“tincture of iodine”).

You may have iodine in your medicine cabinet or first aid kit. Add five (5) drops of 2% tincture of iodine to each quart or liter of water that you are disinfecting. If the water is cloudy or colored, add ten (10) drops of iodine.
Stir and let the water stand for at least 30 minutes before use.

5. FILTRATION is a technique where water is passed through an absorbent, porous media to remove contamination (typically a ceramic or charcoal based filter).

Microfiltration facts: Filtration of particles is usually measured in microns. The symbol for micron is μm. A microfiltration filter has an average pore size of approximately 0.1 to 0.2 μm (pore size ranges vary by filter from 0.05 μm to 5 μm)
  1. Microfiltration has a very high effectiveness in removing protozoa (for example, Cryptosporidium, Giardia)
  2. Microfiltration has a moderate effectiveness in removing bacteria (forexample, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli)
  3. Microfiltration is not effective in removing viruses (for example, Enteric (fecal-oral), Hepatitis A, Norovirus, Rotavirus)
  4. Microfiltration is not effective in removing chemicals.
6. REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEMS use a process that reverses the flow of water in a natural process of osmosis so that water passes from a more concentrated solution to a more dilute solution through a semi-permeable membrane.
Pre- and post-filters are often incorporated along with the reverse osmosis membrane itself.

A reverse osmosis filter has a pore size of approximately 0.0001 μm.
  1. Reverse Osmosis Systems have a very high effectiveness in removing protozoa (for example, Cryptosporidium, Giardia);
  2. Reverse Osmosis Systems have a very high effectiveness in removing bacteria (for example, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli);
  3. Reverse Osmosis Systems have a very high effectiveness in removing viruses (for example, Enteric, Hepatitis A, Norovirus, Rotavirus);
  4. Reverse Osmosis Systems will remove common chemical contaminants (metal ions, aqueous salts), including sodium, chloride, copper, chromium, and lead.
  5. Reverse Osmosis may reduce arsenic, fluoride, radium, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, potassium, nitrate, and phosphorous.
7. DISTILLATION SYSTEMS use a process of heating water to the boiling point and then collecting the water vapor as it condenses, leaving many of the contaminants behind.
  1. Distillation Systems have a very high effectiveness in removing protozoa (for example, Cryptosporidium, Giardia);
  2. Distillation Systems have a very high effectiveness in removing bacteria (for example, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli);
  3. Distillation Systems have a very high effectiveness in removing viruses (for example, Enteric, Hepatitis A, Norovirus, Rotavirus);
  4. Distillation Systems will remove common chemical contaminants, including arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, nitrate, sodium, sulfate, and many organic chemicals.
8. ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT TREATMENT SYSTEMS (with pre-filtration) is a treatment process that uses ultraviolet light to disinfect water or reduce the number of bacteria present.
  1. Ultraviolet Treatment Systems have a very high effectiveness in removing protozoa (for example, Cryptosporidium, Giardia);
  2. Ultraviolet Treatment Systems have a very high effectiveness in removing bacteria (for example, Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, E. coli);
  3. Ultraviolet Treatment Systems have a high effectiveness in removing viruses (for example, Enteric, Hepatitis A, Norovirus, Rotavirus);
  4. Ultraviolet Treatment Systems are not effective in removing chemicals.
 
How Does Bleach Work? (And why the smell test?)

Bleach is an oxidant, and it will react with and kill pretty much any microscopic cellular life (including viruses) that it comes in contact with. When it reacts, the bleach is completely consumed in the process.

Because killing microorganisms also consumes the bleach, the smell test tells you whether there's anything left to kill. If there's no chlorine odor, then all the bleach was used up, meaning there could still be living organisms.

If there is a chlorine odor, however faint, after 30 minutes, it tells you that all the bacteria, viruses and other nasty stuff are dead, and the bleach has done its job with some to spare.

Disinfection does not work as well when water is cloudy or colored. If water is cloudy, let it settle. Then filter the water through a clean cloth, paper towel, or coffee filter. Store the settled and filtered water in clean containers with covers.

Very cold temperatures require longer disinfection times.
 
Swimming Pool Water in an Emergency.

Two chemicals typically find their way into swimming pool water to effectively treat the water. One is chlorine and the other is cyanuric acid.

The chlorine is only added to kill germs. It’s that simple. What’s complicated is the source of the germs. Here are a few of the vectors or sources that bring bacteria and viruses to swimming pools:
  1. The wind.
  2. Branches and leaves that fall into the pool.
  3. Our feet delivering everything we’ve stepped on and in, to the water.
  4. All parts of our bodies and everything that clings to it, everywhere.
  5. Bathing suits T-shirts or anything else someone wears in a pool.
  6. Insects that fall into the water.
  7. Bird droppings.
  8. Mucous, sweat, and other human secretions.
  9. And the family dog when we decide it would be cute for them to take a dip.
Chlorinated pool water won’t hurt you if you accidentally gulp down a mouthful, drinking highly chlorinated water over a period can do some serious damage to your organs and your gastrointestinal system.
In fact, the first sign of mild chlorine poisoning is diarrhea. The chlorine kills the good bacteria in our intestines that help us to digest food. Diarrhea is the result.

The simple fact is that you must get the chlorine out of the water before you drink it.

Bromide is sometimes used as a chlorine alternative for sanitizing pool water, and that’s not any safer to drink.

If you have a swimming pool test kit for chlorine, you should know that water with chlorine levels less than 4 ppm (parts per million) are considered safe to drink.

However, there may be other chemicals or pollutants present, so don’t assume potability (water that’s safe to drink) is all about chlorine levels.

Cyanuric acid is often added as a pool conditioner to raise the acidity of the water to inhibit the growth of algae. The algae that often grows in swimming pools is slimy and encourages bacterial growth. The appearance of algae in water is typically a sign of high alkalinity and an improperly maintained swimming pool.

Cyanuric Acid (CYA) is a very weak organic acid: It is a “triazine”, consisting of a ring of 3 Cyanic Acid [CONH] molecules.

It also stabilizes hypochlorous acid which is a product of the pool chlorine, and the cyanuric acid resists the destabilizing effects of ultraviolet light on the chlorine. It’s relatively safe to swim in water treated with acids if they’re used in the proper proportions, but they’re also not safe to drink in quantity.

According to the American Water Works Association, three technologies are highly effective in the removal of volatile organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, insecticides, metals, and cyanuric acid in swimming pool water. These include activated carbon, an ion exchange (water softening/demineralization), and reverse osmosis.

REVERSE OSMOSIS with secondary CARBON FILTRATION is likely the best way for the average person to completely remove cyanuric acid from water. Reverse Osmosis is a water treatment process that removes contaminants from water by using pressure to force water molecules through a semipermeable membrane. Carbon filters excel at removal of chlorine, industrial solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trihalomethanes (THM), organics., and more.

If unavailable, a good ceramic water filter designed to purify water in the wild (Katadyn, etc) used in conjunction with a charcoal style filter (Berkey, etc) can effectively allow you to filter swimming pool water and make it safe to drink in an emergency.

Look for a filter system that has both carbon and ceramic filters, or one of each. The carbon filter will remove the chemicals, and the ceramic filter will remove any bacteria that has survived the chlorine. Push your pool water through both of them to ensure safety.
 
Carbon Filters

Carbon is a commonly used medium in water filtration processes. In fact, nearly every type of water filter system--whether it's a backpacking water filter, refrigerator filter, shower filter, pitcher filter, reverse osmosis water filtration system or whole-house filter, it utilizes carbon filtration in some way.

Carbon filters for water filtration are produced by grinding up a carbon source. This carbon source could be:

Bituminous coal
Peat
Coconut shells

Of the above-mentioned carbon sources, coconut shells are the most widely used and are highly renewable.

To create the filter, material is heated in the absence of oxygen to 1000 degrees to bake off impurities. The material is then subjected to 1600-degree steam to “activate” the carbon. The steam leaves carbon granules filled with cracks and pores, enabling them to store large amounts of chemicals and contaminants.

What Do Carbon Filters Remove from Water?

Carbon filters are extremely effective at removing a wide variety of contaminants from water because of it's adsorption properties. Through adsorption, contaminants are attracted to the activated carbon surface and held to it. This is similar to the way a magnet attracts and holds iron filings.

Carbon filtration can reduce or remove a variety of contaminants that may affect the taste, color or odor of your drinking water. For example, carbon filters can improve your water's taste by removing chlorine, industrial solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), trihalomethanes (THM), organics., and more. That's why many Reverse Osmosis drinking water systems incorporate carbon filtration as a finishing touch. It's also one of most common filtration mediums used in fridge filters, backpacking water filters, house filters, and more.

There are two basic types of Carbon Filters:

1) GAC Filters

Granular Activated Carbon or "GAC" filters are often used as "polishing filters" in the Reverse Osmosis process. GAC filters are often used to remove chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, lead, pesticides, nitrates, hydrogen sulfide, and many VOCs that are components of gasoline, solvents and industrial cleaners.

2) Carbon Block Filters

A carbon block filter is where the loose pieces of carbon are compressed together to form a filter.

In a carbon block filter, one pound of compressed activated carbon (the amount in a standard ten-inch filter cartridge) has the equivalent surface area of a 160 acre farm, making it one of the most absorbent materials known to man.

Because of the compressed nature of a carbon block filter, water flow rates are lower than that of a GAC filter made of loose medium. Flow rates are impacted by the micron rating of the filter. A carbon block filter is rated to a certain micron rating depending on how much the carbon is compressed. The smaller the micron rating, the finer the filtration and the lower the flow rate. The symbol for micron is μm.

Carbon block filters are rated by the size of contaminants that can be removed at the micron level. Generally, the range is from 50 microns down to .5 microns. The higher the rating, the larger the contaminant size. Very small contaminants will need to be filtered with a small micron size rated filter, such as .5 micron rating.

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Carbon filtration provides an excellent and proven application for the reduction or removal of the following contaminants:

Acetaldehyde
Acetone
Alcohols
Amy Acetate
Amy Alcohol
Antifreeze
Benzene
Bleach
Butyl Alcohol
Butyl Acetate
Calcium Hypochlorite
Chloral
Chloramine
Chloroform
Chlorine
Chlorobenzene
Chlorophenol
Chlorophyll
Citric Acid
Cresol
Defoilants
Diesel Fuel
Dyes
Ethyl Acrylate
Ethyl Alcohols
Ethyl Acetate
Ethyl Amine
Ethyl Ether
Gasoline
Glycols
Herbicides
Hydrogen Peroxide
Hypochlorous Acid
Insecticides
Iodine
Isopropyl Acetate
Isopropyl Alcohol
Ketones
Lactic Acids
Mercaptans
Methyl Acetate
Methyl Alcohol
Methyl Bromide
Methyl Chloride
Methyl Ethyl Ketone
Naphtha
Nitrobenzene
Nitrotoluene
Odors (General)
Oil-Dissolved
Organic Acids (like Cyanuric acid)
Organic Esters
Organic Salts
Oxalic Acid
Oxygen
Ozone
PCB's
Pesticides
Phenol
Plastic Tastes
Potassium Permanganate
Propioic Acid
Propyl Acetate
Propyl Alcohol
Propyl Chloride
Radon
Rubber Hose Taste
Sodium Hypochlorite
Solvents
Sulphonated Oils
Tannins
Tar Emulsion
Tartaric Acid
Taste
THM's
Toluene
Toluidine
Trichlorethylene
Turpentine
Xanthophyll
Xylene
 
What Is A Reverse Osmosis Water Filter System And How Does It Work?

In simple terms, a reverse osmosis water filter works as water is forced across a semi-permeable membrane, leaving contaminants behind. The clean drinking water collects in a holding tank.

Some water is heavy in mineral content which can affect the taste and smell of water. Filtering water with a reverse osmosis system will remove the majority of minerals in water and greatly improve the aesthetics of drinking water. Because minerals in water are in an inorganic state that our bodies cannot digest, removing the minerals does not make RO-filtered water unhealthy. Keep in mind that while minerals are essential for proper health, food is the primary source of the minerals our bodies need to be healthy--and in a form our bodies can digest.

Reverse osmosis systems can remove common pollutants from water including nitrates, lead, pesticides, sulfates, fluoride, bacteria, pharmaceuticals, arsenic and much more. A Reverse Osmosis system combined with a carbon filter will also remove chlorine and chloramines.

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How Much Of A Contaminant Can A Reverse Osmosis System Remove?

Fluoride (85-92%)
Lead (95-98%)
Chlorine (98%)
Pesticides (up to 99%)
Nitrates (60-75%)
Sulfate (96-98%)
Calcium (94-98%)
Phosphate (96-98%)
Arsenic (92-96%)
Nickel (96-98%)
Mercury (95-98%)
Sodium (85-94%)
Barium (95-98%)

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Last Resort Bushcraft Water Filtration is used when you don’t have any of the equipment or chemicals listed above. The basic process of filtering water in a survival situation is to remove debris such as soil, dirt, sediment, sticks, leaves, and any animals living in the water. To create a survival water filter you will need to gather various materials such as pebbles, sand, cloth, and charcoal.
  1. If you have time, collect standing water in a container and let it sit for a few hours. This will allow anything that floats to rise to the surface, and you can skim off any debris.
  2. If you have two containers, try this method for filtering water: Take the first container and fill it with water. Then, put your shirt or some sort of porous layer over the other container. Put your pebbles on top of the cloth and filter your water by pouring it over the stones and into the container. Next, remove the pebbles and put sand, a finer material, on top of the cloth. Filter your water again
  3. Finally, the most effective way to filter is to crush up charcoal, put it on your cloth and let the water run through it. Charcoal filters remove sediment, many contaminants, and improve the taste. Charcoal is used in store-bought home and backcountry water filters. You can make your own charcoal by making a campfire, covering it with dirt and ash, and allow it to cool completely. Once it has cooled, crush it into small pieces. Pour the water through the charcoal several times.
Realize that it is still possible to get sick. You’re not boiling this water, you have no chemicals, and the filtration method is very crude.

The side effects of pathogens and microorganisms may take at least a week to start affecting you, but the immediate hydration may save your life if you keep moving.

If you are in a survival situation, keep hydrated, and worry about those side effects later after you GET TO SAFETY.

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I believe that reverse-osmosis and distillation will make sea water potable as well. Can you confirm?

Time to get a still for disaster preparation purposes.
 
For anyone on a budget, consider the SAWYER SQUEEZE

They are available at every Walmart in the camping section for under $50. It filters out almost everything. Buy several, one for each person.

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The Squeeze by itself last a lifetime provided you maintain it by

1, backflushing every so often with clean water (don't toss the syringe!)

2, don't let it freeze (keep it next to your body in cold weather)

3, don't let it get contaminated.

The Squeeze by itself is fairly bare bones. It comes with a water pouch, cleaning stuff, and adapters. This allows you to expand your capabilities, however, by creating gravity filter systems with something like the MSR Dromedary bladder.

CLEARLY MARK YOUR BAGS "CLEAN" and "DIRTY" and don't mix them up or you may DIE.

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NOTE: If you are worried about heavy metals or chemical contamination, the Squeeze will not work; avoid sourcing your water near mines, agricultural operations or other areas that poison the water.

For heavy metal and VOC contamination, you will need something more than a backpacking filter - you'll need a charcoal setup as mentioned earlier, purpose built filters or preferably a reverse osmosis system. The Big Berkey setups will also take care of this.
 
Check out this CDC list of water treatment methods while traveling, camping, travel. The Squeeze S2 has a .01 micron filter. Testing shows it gets the nasties out.
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Thank you for the time and effort that you put into this information.

I have my water treatment kits, set up like my first aid kits. They are based on my location. They may not be the best, but I am always working on
upgrades and better information.

My Daily Backpack kit (light and rarely used):
EDC H20.JPG


My Backpacking/ off trail kit (small MSR, solid, light, dependable):

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I then have a few of these for fixed locations (bulky, proven):

basecamp H20.jpg
 
I believe that reverse-osmosis and distillation will make sea water potable as well. Can you confirm?

Time to get a still for disaster preparation purposes.

Katadyn Survivor 35 Watermaker - 8019948​

Katadyn Survivor 35 The most widely-used emergency desalinator.

It produces up to 1.2 gallons per hour and is compact and light enough to carry aboard a sea kayak. For sailors without auxiliary power, this unit can fulfill your water needs with a modest effort.

Katadyn watermakers use reverse osmosis to recover fresh water from seawater. This process removes biological, chemical, and organic contaminants from the water. Since the membrane has a pore size small enough to remove dissolved salts, it can also remove most micro-organisms.

LINK

Only $2,318.99…
 

Katadyn Survivor 35 Watermaker - 8019948​

Katadyn Survivor 35 The most widely-used emergency desalinator.

It produces up to 1.2 gallons per hour and is compact and light enough to carry aboard a sea kayak. For sailors without auxiliary power, this unit can fulfill your water needs with a modest effort.

Katadyn watermakers use reverse osmosis to recover fresh water from seawater. This process removes biological, chemical, and organic contaminants from the water. Since the membrane has a pore size small enough to remove dissolved salts, it can also remove most micro-organisms.

LINK

Only $2,318.99…


This could be good for me. We have a neighborhood well with two 10,000 gallon reservoirs. I was talking with one of our association board members, he stated if everyone conserved water it would last two weeks. Our generators won't run the well, WTF?!

We live on an Island in earthquake prone area. I think I need to become a board member.
 
Disaster preparedness can be a pretty sobering topic once you do an area study and TRULY understand how fragile our infrastructure really is.

As I always say, we’re only 3 missed meals (or days without water) away from a total free for all.
 
Disaster preparedness can be a pretty sobering topic once you do an area study and TRULY understand how fragile our infrastructure really is.

As I always say, we’re only 3 missed meals (or days without water) away from a total free for all.

Great thread Dave.
Regarding a total free for all and how easily it could theoretically happen may I suggest reading the trilogy by William R. Forstchen. The first book is entitled “One Second After” and depicts the events after an EMP attack on the US. Highly recommend.

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In an effort to bring some data into this discussion, I will be submitting some samples to the lab for testing - river, lake, swimming pool, etc.

I think it will be interesting to see what’s in the water pre and post-filtration. And what’s real versus what manufacturers are advertising.

Filters to be tested:

Sawyer Squeeze
Katadyn Pocket Microfilter
AlexaPure Pro
 
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